Tirohanga Ohanga mō Te Moana a Toi: Māori Entrepreneurs in Te Moana ā Toi and New Zealand for 2001 and 2006

Technical Notes

Random Rounding

In order to protect confidentiality, Statistics New Zealand’s policy is to randomly round figures to base three. As a result, individual rows and columns may not add up to totals, and figures in tables may differ slightly to figures in other publications.

Confidentiality Rules

The number of Māori entrepreneurs involved in the government administration and defence industry in 2001 is not available because of Statistics New Zealand’s data confidentiality rules applied to low numbers. Therefore, no information is available for this industry in Graph 1. Also other industries are affected and these are mentioned at the foot of each relevant graph.

Industry Classification Standard (Industry)

ANZSIC is the Australian and New Zealand Standard Industrial Classification. In 1996 New Zealand published ANZSIC 1996 (New Zealand use version). The ANZSIC96 version used for this analysis is version 4.1.25 It is closely based on the International Standard Industrial Classification 3 (United Nations 1990).



25 http://www.stats.govt.nz/browse_for_stats/industry_sectors/anzsic06-industry-classification.aspx accessed on 13 August 2009.


“Employer with or without employees” combines “Employer” and “Self employed without employees” statistics from Statistics New Zealand’s 2001 and 2006 Censuses of Population and Dwellings.

Ethnicity/Ethnic Group 26

Total Responses: includes all of the people who stated each ethnic group, whether as their only ethnic group or as one of several ethnic groups. Where a person reported more than one ethnic group, they have been counted in each applicable group.

Ethnicity is the ethnic group or groups that people identify with or feel they belong to. Ethnicity is a measure of cultural affiliation, as opposed to race, ancestry, nationality or citizenship. Ethnicity is self-perceived and people can belong to more than one ethnic group.

An ethnic group is made up of people who have some or all of the following characteristics:

  • a common proper name
  • one or more elements of common culture that need not be specified, but may include
  • religion, customs, or language
  • unique community of interests, feelings and actions
  • a shared sense of common origins or ancestry, and
  • a common geographic origin. Māori in this report refers to the Māori ethnic group.



26 http://www.stats.govt.nz/Census/2006-census-data/2006-census-definitions-questionnaires/definitions/e.aspx accessed on 7 October 2009

Total Personal Income 27

Information on total personal income received was collected from individuals in the 2001 and 2006 Censuses. It represents the before-tax income for the respondent in the 12 months ending 31 March 2001 and 2006. Dollar amounts shown are not inflation-adjusted.

Total personal income is aggregated to form a number of other income outputs including:

  • Grouped total personal income
  • Total household income
  • Grouped total household income
  • Total family income
  • Grouped total family income
  • Combined parental income for couples with child(ren)
  • Grouped combined parental income for couples with child(ren)
  • Total extended family income
  • Grouped total extended family income.



Highest Qualification

Highest qualification is derived for people aged 15 years and over, and combines highest secondary school qualification and post-school qualification to derive a single highest qualification by category of attainment.

Table 6 below shows the concordances that map Statistics New Zealand’s 2001 and 2006 Census data on Highest qualifications with the Equivalent Highest qualifications used in this report.

Table 6: Statistics New Zealand’s Concordances of Highest Qualification28

2001 Census: Education Highest Qualification 2006 Census: 2001 Equivalent Highest Qualification Maps to the following Equivalent Highest Qualifications used in this report Examples of qualifications
No Qualification No Qualification No Qualification  
Fifth Form Qualification Level 1 Certificate gained at school School School certificate, NCEA Level 1
Sixth Form Qualification Level 2 Certificate gained at school School Sixth form certificate, NCEA Level 2
Higher School Qualification Level 3 or 4 Certificate gained at school School Bursary, scholarship, NCEA level 3
Overseas Secondary School Qualification Overseas Secondary School School O level, A level, GCE
Basic Vocational Qualification Level 1, 2 or 3 Certificate gained post-school Post-school Certificate or Diploma Pre-vocational certificates, bridging certificates
Skilled Vocational Qualification Level 4 Certificate gained post-school Post-school Certificate or Diploma Trade certificate, national certificate
Intermediate Vocational Qualification Level 5 Diploma Post-school Certificate or Diploma Advanced trade certificate
Advanced Vocational Qualification Level 6 Diploma Post-school Certificate or Diploma Undergraduate diploma/certificate, national diploma, NZ diploma.
Bachelor Degree Bachelor Degree and level 7 qualifications Bachelor Degree or higher BA, BSc, BCA
Higher Degree Post-Graduate and Honours degree Bachelor Degree or higher Post-graduate diploma, post-graduate certificate
Higher Degree Master's Degre e Bachelor Degree or higher MA, MSc, MBA, MCA
Higher Degree Doctorate Degree Bachelor Degree or higher PhD
Highest Qualification Unidentifiable Not Elsewhere Included    
Not Stated/Not Elsewhere included -includes other New Zealand secondary school qualification      

Source: Statistics New Zealand’s, Census of Population and Dwellings, 2001 and 2006.


A qualification is a formally recognised award for attainment resulting from a full-time (20 hours per week) learning course of at least three months, or from part-time study that, when completed, is equivalent to three months full time, or from on-the-job training.

Formal recognition means that the qualification is:

  • awarded by a New Zealand secondary school or institution as defined by the Education Act, or
  • awarded under the auspices of the New Zealand Qualifications Authority (NZQA), that is, by a registered qualifications provider, or
  • awarded by a publicly recognised New Zealand authority of a profession, academic discipline or trade, or
  • awarded by a New Zealand recognised overseas authority of a profession, academic discipline or trade.

Category of attainment is an indication of the amount and type of learning required to gain a qualification.

The amount of learning is the total learning time usually necessary to obtain a qualification. Included are any previous learning or educational attainment required for admission to the educational course leading to the qualification and the amount of learning time necessary to complete the qualification.

The type of learning is the blend of theoretical knowledge and understanding and the attainment of practical skills. For example, academic qualifications have greater theoretical content than vocational qualifications; vocational qualifications have greater applied skills content than academic qualifications.

Census Usually Resident Population Count

The census usually resident population count of New Zealand is all people counted in New Zealand on census night, excluding overseas visitors and New Zealand residents temporarily overseas.

The census usually resident population count of an area in New Zealand is a count of all people who usually live in that area and are present in New Zealand on census night. This count excludes visitors from overseas, visitors from elsewhere in New Zealand, and residents temporarily overseas on census night.

For example, a person who usually lives in Christchurch city but was in Wellington city on census night will be included in the census usually resident population count of Christchurch city and also will be included in the census night population count of Wellington city. They will be excluded from the census night population count of Christchurch city and from the census usually resident population count of Wellington city.

For the purposes of the data used in this report, the “usually resident” definition was refined with the help of Statistics New Zealand to include: Employed Census Usually Resident Population Count Aged 15 Years and over. See below for definition of Employed.


Employed includes: Full-time and Part-time employed. Full-time is equal to people working 30 or more hours per week. Part-time is equal to people working 1-29 hours per week. Also, employed is related to work in the 7 days prior to 6th March 2001 and 5th March 2006. The analysis shown in tables and graphs is for the job a person worked the most hours in.

Regional Council 29

Regional councils were established by the Local Government Commission in November 1989 after the abolition of the 22 local government regions. A total of 14 regional councils were defined by the local government commission. In 1992 this was increased to 16.

Regional councils cover every territorial authority in New Zealand with the exception of the Chatham Islands Territory. Generally, regional councils contain complete territorial authorities. Where territorial authorities straddle regional council boundaries, the affected area has been statistically defined in complete area units. For 2006 boundaries, there are eight instances of territorial authority boundaries straddling regional council boundaries.

The Local Government Amendment Act (No. 3) 1988 requires the boundaries of regions to conform as far as possible to one or more water catchments. When determining regional boundaries, the Local Government Commission also gave consideration to regional communities of interest, natural resource management, land use planning and environmental matters.

Regional councils are defined at meshblock and area unit level. The seaward boundary of the regions is the 12-mile (19.3km) New Zealand territorial limit. For the purposes of the data used in this report, the Bay of Plenty region refers to the Bay of Plenty regional council and includes the following areas:

  • Taupo District
  • Western Bay of Plenty District
  • Tauranga City
  • Rotorua District
  • Whakatane District
  • Kawerau District
  • Opotiki District
  • Area Outside Territorial Authority30



29 http://www2.stats.govt.nz/domino/external/omni/omni.nsf/wwwglsry/Regional+Council accessed on 13 August 2009.

30 This includes the following: Moutohora Island, Oceanic Bay of Plenty Region, White Island, Motiti Island, and Mayor Island.