Treaty of Waitangi settlement process

Governments breached Te Tiriti o Waitangi almost from the time it was signed in 1840. In the late 20th century many of these breaches were finally acknowledged. Finding the means to redress injustices has involved careful negotiation. Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand.

Ngāi Tahu

As one of the first iwi to settle with the Crown in 1998, Ngāi Tahu has quietly grown its influence to a point where it is now considered an economic powerhouse in the South Island. It has increased its initial $170m settlement to a total asset base worth approaching $1 billion in 2014.

The tribe has considerable interests across a range of sectors, including an extensive and diverse land portfolio.

Ngāi Tahu main areas of interest are in property development (and the rebuild of Christchurch), tourism, fishing and forestry, agribusiness and farming, and have been undertaking a cultural mapping programme to map areas and sites of significance to Māori, local government and New Zealand.

The tribe have also distributed and invested over $254 million in tribal development, much of that being direct to their Papatipu Rūnanga and tribal members through a matched savings programme, education scholarships and grants.


Waikato-Tainui, through its commercial arm Tainui Group Holdings (TGH), has made a significant contribution to the Waikato economy.

Long term planning and good governance seems a theme of TGH. The iwi has turned its Treaty of Waitangi settlement of $170m to assets of more than $650m in 2012 with expectations that this will top $1b by 2020.

Such growth will stem from investments in the port, retail, property, forestry and other investments. TGH has become a commercial giant with it’s The Base/Te Awa shopping mall development in Hamilton, a string of Crown tenants in its commercial property portfolio and hotels in Hamilton and at Auckland Airport.

The focus for the tribe now moves to its latest and biggest venture to date. The $3.5b vision is for an inland port, freight logistics hub and residential development, intertwined with parks, cycleways and open areas, to be built at Ruakura on the fringe of Hamilton.

Plans to develop its nearly 500ha site will be staged over a 50 -year period and will ultimately create jobs and generate $4.4b for the Waikato economy. The development is supported by the Mayor of Hamilton, the Waikato Chamber of Commerce and other business groups.

In 2014, Te Puni Kokiri published ‘Māori Economy in the Waikato Region.

Treaty of Waitangi Signing Timeline

About 40 chiefs signed the Treaty of Waitangi on 6 February 1840. Eight different copies of the treaty were taken around the country. By the end of the year, about 500 other Māori, including 13 women, had put their names or moko to the document; all but 39 signed the Māori text. While some had clear expectations about what their agreement would bring, others chose not to sign the Treaty.

Signing locations

Waitangi Copy

Waitangi, 6 & 17 February 1840 (43-44 signatories)

Waimate North, 9-10 February 1840 (8 signatories)

Bay of Islands, 17 February 1840 (28 signatories)

Waitematā, 4 March 1840 (16 signatories)

Kaitaia, 28 April 1840 (61 signatories)

Tamaki, 9 July 1840 (7 signatories)


Tūranga, 5 May 1840 (25 signatories)

Uawa, 7-16 May 1840 (2 signatories)

Waiapu, 25 May 1840 (10 signatories)

Tokomaru, 9 June 1840 (10 signatories)


Port Nicholson, 29 April 1840 (34 signatories)

Queen Charlotte Sound, 4-5 May 1840

Rangitoto Island, 11 May 1840 (13 signatories)

Kapiti Island, 14 May 1840 (4 signatories)

Waikanae, 16 May 1840 (20 signatories)

Ōtaki, 19 & 21 May 1840 (18 signatories)

Whanganui, 23 & 31 May 1840 (10 signatories)

Manawatū, 26 May 1840 (18 signatories)


Coromandel, 4 May 1840 (4 signatories)

Mercury Bay, 7 May 1840 (2 signatories)

Akaroa, 13 May 1840 (2 signatories)

Ruapuke, 10 June 1840 (3 signatories)

Otago, 13 June 1840 (2 signatories)

Cloudy Bay, 17 June 1840 (9 signatories)

Mana Island, 19 June 1840 (2 signatories)

Hawkes Bay, 24 June 1849 (3 signatories)


Ōpōtiki, 8-27 May 1840 (8 signatories)

Tōrere, 11-14 June 1840 (3 signatories)

Te Kaha, 14 June 1840 (4 signatories)

Whakatāne, 16 June 1840 (12 signatories)


Tauranga, 10 April – 23 May 1840 (21 signatories)


Manukau, 20 March 1840 (3 signatories)

Kawhia, 28 April – 3 September 1840 (10 signatories)


Waikato Heads, March-April 1840 (34 signatories)

Manukau, 26 April 1840 (7 signatories)

There is also a printed copy of the treaty called the Waikato printed copy, but it is not known when or where it was signed nor which chiefs signed it.