Māori and the Out of School Services Sector

5. Research Methodology

5.1 Participants

The key participants in this research are children, parents, caregivers, service providers and whānau (both as caregivers and carers). Other participants include representatives from rūnanga who have a strong interest in out of school services in their rohe and people from organisations who are involved with whānau and have a good understanding of issues relating to the provision of out of school services to Māori in their areas.

They participated through 50 individual interviews and 13 focus groups which were conducted over a six week period from late June to mid-August 2008. The numbers of participants in the focus groups ranged from four to 10. Twenty one OSCAR-approved and 12 non-OSCAR funded service providers were interviewed either individually or as part of a focus group. Fifty eight parents and caregivers were interviewed either individually or as part of a focus group. Overall, a total number of 92 participants participated in the research.

These interviews were arranged by Te Puni Kōkiri regional staff in Christchurch, Wellington, Wanganui, Wairarapa, Napier, Hastings, Gisborne, Rotorua, Hamilton, Tauranga, Kawerau, Auckland and Northland. Within these areas, participants came from a mix of city, urban, provincial towns and rural locations.

Parents and caregivers also participated through survey forms. Approximately 50 were distributed with 17 returned to Te Puni Kōkiri .

Parent and caregiver participants in the research are representative of both single parent and two parent whānau. Many of these are also part of extended whānau who also participated in the interviews and focus groups.

Service providers interviewed are either OSCAR-approved by Child, Youth and Family. They deliver OSCAR programmes and access OSCAR funding. Their parents and caregivers can apply for Work and Income subsides. Other service providers are non-OSCAR funded. They develop their own programmes and do not access these funding streams and or subsidies for parents and caregivers.

Some non-OSCAR funded service providers are in transition and have applied or are in the process of applying for approval from Child, Youth and Family. There are also a few who are running their own programmes and want to know more about the OSCAR approval process.

Whānau carers are also participants in the out of school services sector. These are grandparents and other whānau members, friends/neighbours who provide care for mokopuna during out of school services time.

5.2 Interviews and Focus Groups

Interviews and focus groups were conducted for parents and service providers in most regions. Some regions combined their focus sessions to include parents and caregivers, whānau and service providers. These were conducted kanohi ki te kanohi. If people were not available on the day, they were interviewed by telephone.

All interviews and focus groups were semi-structured around prepared sets of questions. Individual interviews took approximately 40 minutes to an hour. Depending on numbers of participants, focus groups generally took up to two hours.

All participants consented to their participation and for their information to be used in the research report with some wanting to remain anonymous. Consent was also requested to tape and transcribe the interviews and focus groups. For personal reasons two participants did not consent to being recorded but consented to the researchers taking notes at the interview.

Consent was obtained using consent forms. For telephone interviews, participants either emailed their consent forms to the researchers or they recorded their consent on the tape at the beginning of their interview.

5.3 Questions and Whānau Survey Form

Questions were prepared for parents and caregivers interviews, focus groups, service providers and for whānau carers. The questions and the whānau survey form (refer to paragraph 5.3.3) were approved by Te Puni Kōkiri prior to commencing the research. These are included in the appendices 1 to 5.

5.3.1 Parents and caregivers questions

The focus of the parents and caregivers question-set is designed to obtain information about:

  1. What is important for them and what influences their decisions about care for their children before and/or after school and during the school holidays
  2. Whether their arrangements meet their needs and priorities and to what extent have their choices been expanded or limited (for example, through cost, location)
  3. What are some of the challenges they experience with their arrangements
  4. Whether there are any gaps arising from their choices and how these can be improved.

5.3.2 Service provider questions

Service provider questions have been prepared to gain insights into:

  1. The programmes they deliver and how these meet the needs and priorities of Māori parents and how they continue to do so
  2. Challenges they face in reflecting these needs and priorities and their experiences in meeting these
  3. Gaps or improvements in the services that need to be catered for.

5.3.3 Whānau survey form

A survey form was also prepared for distribution for parents and caregivers/or whānau who wanted to provide input but were not able to attend a focus group or an interview. The questions in the survey form are consistent with those prepared for parents and caregivers and service providers outlined in paragraphs 5.3.1 and 5.3.2.

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