History of whenua reform

The reform of Te Ture Whenua Māori is the most significant to have occurred in the last 40 years. During that time Māori have advocated for greater tino rangatiratanga over their whenua. 

Māori have strongly advocated that land be nurtured for current and future generations and called for the Act to better support them to use and develop their whenua.

The purpose of reforms to Te Ture Whenua Māori is to recognise the significance of Māori land and to create a more workable set of rules and practical supports that enable land owners to achieve their aspirations for their whenua. 


The Journey to Te Ture Whenua Māori

1865

Native Land Court established.

1873

Commission of Enquiry - Native Land Court practices.

1953

Māori Affairs Act.

Allowed for some flexibility of use for Māori land and also introduced mandatory conversion.

1975

Land march led by Dame Whina Cooper, 'Not an acre more'.

This was the genesis for modern Māori land law.

1980

Royal Commission on the Māori Land Court.

Recommended complete revision of Māori land law and separating judicial and administrative functions for Māori land.

1983

Kaupapa: Te Wāhanga Tuatahi.

New Zealand Māori Council set out the dual kaupapa of retention and development for the rewrite of Māori land law.

1987

Te Ture Whenua Māori Bill introduced to Parliament.

1993

Te Ture Whenua Māori Act 1993 becomes law.

1996

Māori Land Investment Group.

Independent group of Māori explore options to make it easier to raise finance for Māori land and recommended more practical support for Māori land owners and narrowing role of the Māori Land Court.

1997

Te Ture Whenua five-year review commences.

This review was provided for under the Act, to assess how the Act was working for Māori land owners. Although there was widespread support for changes to increase land owner autonomy, only some of these were progressed as part of Te Ture Whenua Māori Amendment Act 2002.

1998

 Māori Multiple Owned Land Development Committee.

Independent group recommended more support for Māori land owners to develop their land and increasing the accuracy and completeness of Māori land information.

1999

Māori Land Court.

Administration restructured.

2000

Closing the Gaps for all New Zealanders.

Introduced increased support for Māori land owners and improved the information available for Māori land owners.

2004

Māori Land Online project.

Information from the Māori Land Court record on ownership and records for all Māori land blocks made accessible via the internet.

2005

Hui Taumata Māori Land Tenure Review Group.

Presented recommendations to support Māori land development, including more support for Māori land owners, improved registration systems and more autonomy for Māori land owners.

Office of the Auditor General Report.

Recommended improvements to the administration of the Māori Land Court.

2011

Owner Aspirations Research Report.

Independent research to ask Māori land owners about their priorities for whenua Māori. Recommended practical changes to law and support systems.

2012

Review of Te Ture Whenua Māori.

Independent panel recommended five key changes to Māori land law and administration to increase autonomy and ability of Māori land owners to connect and use their whenua, while keeping good safeguards for whenua.

2013

Cabinet decisions.

Cabinet approved the review panel's recommendations to improve the utilisation of Māori land, and to progress the reforms through Te Ture Whenua Māori Bill.

2014

Iwi/Crown consultation process.

Nationwide hui to inform people of the proposed reforms.

2015

Appointment of Te Ture Whenua Māori Ministerial Advisory Group.

Established to provide independent advice on the exposure draft of the Bill and the Māori Land Service.

2016

Te Ture Whenua Māori Bill introduced to Parliament.

Nationwide hui on proposed Māori Land Service services. Cabinet agrees its commitment to address other barriers to use and development of whenua.

2017

Te Ture Whenua Māori Bill.

Nationwide hui on proposed Māori Land Service structure and services. The Bill debated in the Committee of the Whole in Parliament.

2018

Cabinet decisions.

Te Ture Whenua Māori Bill withdrawn. Funding confirmed through Budget 2018 for whenua Māori reforms to improve the administration of Māori freehold land, assist with the development of Māori whenua generally and improve governance capacity.

2019

Whenua Māori Programme established.
Te Ture Whenua Māori (Succession, Dispute Resolution, and Related Matters) Amendment Bill introduced to Parliament.

The Whenua Māori Programme is established to support Māori freehold landowners connect with, govern, use and develop their whenua, amend Te Ture Whenua Māori Act 1993, and deliver new and enhanced Māori Land Court services and technology. Te Ture Whenua Māori (Succession, Dispute Resolution, and Related Matters) Amendment Bill introduced to Parliament with targeted changes to simplify and enhance Māori Land Court processes for land owners.

2020

Rating legislation introduced to Parliament.
Amendments to Te Ture Whenua Māori Act become law.

Local Government (Rating of Whenua Māori) Amendment Bill introduced to Parliament.

Te Ture Whenua Māori (Succession, Dispute Resolution, and Related Matters) Amendment Act 2020 is passed into law

 

 

 

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